Human health

Photochemical ozone formation

Air pollution causing tropospheric ozone in the atmosphere can have a negative impact on human health, e.g. respiratory problems, and terrestrial ecosystems, e.g. plant biomass decrease.

 

Cause-effect pathway

 

The impact model is addressing emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and consequent effects on the Areas of protection ‘Human Health’ and ‘Terrestrial ecosystems’. This overview will focus on the human health effects only.

 

 

 

Modeling approach

 

A marginal approach for calculating the characterization factors is followed, meaning that the additional impact of a marginal increase in ozone precursor emission using today’s situation as the reference state was determined. Model results were determined following a change in anthropogenic emissions and is determined by lowering the year 2000 emissions by 20% for each of the 56 source regions. Impact is measured in disability adjusted life years for human health (DALYs) for human health.

 

 

Value choices

 

Time Horizon: not of importance as only short-living substances are involved.

 

 

Spatial variability

 

The method was applied to 56 world regions. Country-average CFs were determined from these region-specific factors. A global average is not considered meaningful but provided for background processes.

 

 

Characterisation factors

 

The endpoint characterisation factors (CFs) for human health damage due to ozone formation caused by emitted precursor substance x in world region i (CFx,i in DALY∙kg-1) are defined as the yearly change in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) of all inhabitants (dDALY in yr∙yr-1) due to a change in emission of substance x in source region i (dMx,i in kg∙yr-1). This CF for human health damage is composed of a dimensionless intake fraction (iFx, i→j), providing the population intake of ozone in receptor region j (in kg/yr) following an emission change of substance x in source region i (in kg/yr), an effect factor (EFe), describing the cases of health effect e per kg of inhaled ozone, and a damage factor (DFe), which describes the years of life lost per case of health effect e. In equation this reads:

 

PUBLICATIONS

Van Zelm R, Preiss P, Van Goethem T, Van Dingenen R, Huijbregts MAJ. 2016. Regionalized life cycle impact assessment of air pollution on the global scale: damage to human health and vegetation. Atmospheric Environment 134, 129-137.